I created this page on bottled water in order to educate you about the entire topic. There are many, many issues with bottled water. One issue is the unhealthiness associated with the soft, clear plastic used for storing bottled water. This type of plastic is highly subject to chemical leaching. BPA is not the only chemical of concern for leaching, but is certainly one of them. Acidity is another unhealthy concern associated with bottled water. Much of this page is devoted to exposing the acidity of many of the most popular brands of bottled water.

Another huge problem in our world today has to do with hundreds and thousands of square miles worth of plastic waste that is filling our land-fills and oceans. Plastic won't degrade fast enough to allow us the "privilege" of continued ignorance and irresponsibility for our treatment of our planet. We need to wake up our sense of responsibility for our planet. The "green" thing to do is to filter your own water.


Most methods of purifying water used by the bottling companies, with the exception of just a very few, use extreme filtration and ozonation to treat the water before bottling it. Neither of these processes make the water healthier, and they are NOT better than what your water company does at all. Plus the extreme measures of filtration tend to make the water acidic. The consensus between the two main water quality regulating groups [EPA and EWG] and health research is that bottled water is inferior in quality to tap water.

  1. Extreme Filtration: The majority of the bottled water companies use extreme filtration [ion-exchange, demineralization, reverse osmosis, distillation, deionization or any combination of these]. Regardless of the source, wells, springs, rivers, lakes, and municipal water supplies, when you use extreme filtration it is proven over and over that you create dead-water. Dead water is void of all healthy minerals, similar to acid rain. It's called dead water because of the death of tissues, cells and life caused by this type of water. It takes a while for acidic rain-water to soak into the ground, trickle through layers of calcium and other rock and in the process calcium, magnesium, potassium and other healthy minerals dissolve into it. Then with one foul swoop these bottling companies "treat" the water by removing everything from it, including all of the healthy minerals. This is the cheapest way to go, because they can use any water; they don't have to use expensive specialty filters; and locate themselves anywhere.
  2. Some water bottling companies tap into the source water of a particular area that has already good ground water (not needing extreme filtration) and they don't kill it with extreme filtration. Even in this case they will usually ozonate it for sanitation reasons, which puts acidity into the water.
  3. Some companies use good ground water, but use extreme filtration...so negate the benefits of using the good ground water.
  4. Acidity kills germs. There aren't very many regulations on bottling companies. Nothing in comparison to the regulations on municipal water companies. However, there is one clear regulation about sanitation and doing everything possible to kill germs in the bottling environment. Alkaline water is far more healthy for people, proven time and time again. One might wonder, "Will what kills germs also possibly kill or be harmful to cells?" but the regulations don't evaluate that at all.
  5. The disinfection of bottled water usually includes ozonation. The process of ozonation is basically infusing the water with oxygen [which is another way of saying oxidizing it]. Oxidizing is the opposite to anti-oxidants. It's used to kill germs, but creates complications by adding too many free-radicals - more than what is healthy for the body.
  6. Safety of bottled water vs tap water: Most brands of bottled water are void of healthy minerals, have no electrolytes, and are acidic. An extra problem is that water wants minerals in it and it will dissolve more minerals as soon as it can. It will absorb acidic minerals from the air and alkaline minerals from your bones, joints and muscles in order to fill the void created by stripping the water of its minerals. When you consume a lot of extremely purified water it will rob your body of its healthy, essential minerals as you drink. Not good.
  7. A study done by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, was conducted for the purpose of educating patients on the dangers of dental erosion and tooth decay which is caused by over consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Most of the bottled water they tested had a more acidic pH when tested in the lab than the value listed in their water quality reports.


All of my testing of brands of bottled water shows them to be inferior to filtered tap water. This video shows you one of the many demonstrations/tests I've done on various brands of bottled water. In particular this video focuses on the pH of the water being tested.


The following brands of bottled water are shown here in this comparison chart with their pH-levels and water source/treatment notes in order from worst to best: Vitaminwater 3.4, Propel Zero 3.5, Propel Fitness Water3.36, Penta 4.0, Dasani 4.5, Function 5.0, Perrier 5.5, Poland Spring 5.8, Voss 6.0, Ice Mountain 6.0, Crystal Geyser 6.0, Deer Park 6.3, Smart Water 6.5, Great Value Walmart 6.5, Gerber Pure Water 6.5, Arrowhead 6.83, Evian 7.0, Eternal 7.0, Volvic 7.0, Zephyrhills 7.5, Absopure 7.5, Fiji 7.5, Super Chill 7.5, Evamor 8.0, Real Water 8.0, Essentia 9.0. The pH-levels of several locations where I've tested the tap water is also shown for comparison sake.


Municipal water companies do a pretty good job of filtering the water, and their quality of filtration is highly regulated. They do add chemicals, such as chlorine, to treat your water, but these can be filtered out easily and quickly just before you drink it. The water lines going from the water company all the way to your tap are also regulated, by municipal codes, all for the purpose of bringing you clean and healthy water.

All that being said, I do recommend that you filter your water to remove chlorine, chloramine, fluoride, etc., and to condition the water to be more bio-available to your cells as well as contain antioxidants. Among all of my non-electric filtering devices, this one does the best job both of filtering and of producing medical-levels of molecular hydrogen for only about 10 cents per liter (quart). The Alkaline Ionizer Purifier Energizer by AOK Health. It hooks to your sink fairly easily. See this report to learn more about the importance of molecular hydrogen to all of health.

There are usually no chemicals or toxic elements in your water that can't be removed with proper water filtration. Keep in mind your municipality already filters your water. Most chemicals of concern in your tap water are put there by municipal water companies in order to rid the water of germs, fungus and algae. Water that is stored without any disinfecting chemicals [i.e., no chlorine] will soon start growing algae, fungus, etc. Chemicals used to treat your tap water, such as chlorine, are fairly easy and inexpensive to remove. The best way to handle water treatment chemicals is for you to keep the water disinfected, then freshly filter it when it's time to drink it.

Other types of products which filter water easily and effectively: portable water filters/pitchers, water filters attached to your water supply directly, and water ionizers. The advantages of any of these methods over bottled water are numerous: decreased cost & land-fill wastes; increased freshness, convenience & control of what you filter; and overall healthier water.


Bottled Water Companies spend millions of dollars to make you believe that bottled water tastes better than tap, but when put to the test it isn't usually the case.

Taste tests of various bottled water brands have actually shown the most popular brands of bottled water to be inferior to tap water! Of course it would depend on where you live, but this is often the case. The common perception, caused by the brainwashing of advertising, is that the more you pay for bottled water the better it tastes. There have been many blind taste-tests of bottled water vs tap water to prove that in fact tap water tastes just as "good" when presented as an expensive brand of bottled water.

In a famous CBS expose people in a fancy restaurant were presented with an expensive "Water Menu" they immediately believed that the taste of the water was better. In each case the customers reacted to the PR and hype of the fancy label, price, menu and waiter's attitude rather than their own senses in deciding how well they liked each water they tasted.

ABC News did a similar study on bottled water vs. tap and it exposed that people were paying over $600/yr for bottled water, thinking that it tasted fresher, cleaner, and was healthier for their family. When given a blind taste-test they 100% chose the tap water for fresher, cleaner, healthier taste.


A walk down the water aisle in the grocery store will tell you how popular bottled water has become. However, pretty much all brands of bottled water are not the healthiest water. They've been sitting around in plastic bottles for who knows how long, and while they're certainly better than soda, they are still not good for you.

Many of the bottled water brands are simply tap water from some municipality put in bottles without specifically removing the pharmaceuticals, pesticides, fluoride, VOCs and water treatment chemicals. Many other brands of water use extreme measures of filtration, such as reverse osmosis, ion-exchange, and distillation which are cheap ways to remove everything from the water. But removing everything from the water makes it extremely unhealthy for you!

This is a video which is a great piece done by ABC's 20/20 reporters on the subject of bottled water vs tap. The healthier and tastier alternative is to set up a water filter system in both your home and office.

Granted, tap water may need some basic filtration in order to be as healthy as it can be, but simple and inexpensive water filter systems can give you fresher, cleaner and healthier water than bottled water. Here's a page about filtering water, which isn't too hard to do at all and is very cost effective.


Reverse osmosis and distilled water are void of minerals. Water is known as the universal solvent. As it travels through rivers, rock, etc. on its way to your tap it picks up minerals. Most of the regions in the US have some pretty healthy minerals [like calcium, magnesium, and potassium] that are picked up by the water as it travels to your tap. Unhealthy elements are picked up too, such as lead, copper, and arsenic, but these are pretty easily removed from your water with the right filtration. By the time your water has reached your tap, you are right to think that many of the elements in it might be unhealthy. So what do you do? Reverse osmosis or distillation is not always the wrong thing to do, but you should know that when you remove all of the minerals from the water you will need to put healthy minerals back into the water to make it stabilized. What happens with reverse osmosis water or distilled water (which has not been remineralized) in the body is that it will travel through and pick up minerals right out of your joints and bones! Water has the property of wanting to do this. It does not want to stay void of all minerals. It is usually better, cheaper and easier to avoid reverse osmosis or distilled water filtration, but sometimes it is necessary. If you have a whole house water softener, for instance, then that water is full of sodium and reverse osmosis can remove sodium from water (but it's only one of the methods that can do this).


I have tested alkaline antioxidant water against various brands of water: bottled water brands, soda, distilled, reverse osmosis and tap waters. Over the past 20 years of using alkaline ionized water for myself and family, I have found that the healthiest water to drink is alkaline antioxidant water, and I encourage you to move away from drinking bottled and give alkaline ionized water a try.


To keep our blood the right pH, 7.365, we should drink water at a pH of about 9 to 10. Drinking alkaline water helps the body detoxify. Toxins are acids, and to maintain pH balance while you are detoxifying, one needs an abundance of alkaline buffers.

Alkaline Water is Important to Cleanse the Cells of Toxins. In order to rid the body of acidic wastes, it is important that you have sufficient buffers, and that's a big reason why alkaline water is good. Our blood requires and actually enforces pH balance and when water is too acidic, your body is unable to flush out the acidic wastes from your cells and tissues. Organs deteriorate and disease sets in over time when you don't flush out the acidic wastes.

Scroll up to see our big chart comparing the pH-levels of alkaline antioxidant water with tap and bottled water, together with reverse osmosis water, soda, gatorade and distilled water.


Not only is alkaline water good, but also the fact that ionized water is antioxidant water is fantastic! The healthiest water to drink for a variety of reasons is alkaline antioxidant water. It will provide you with pH buffers to help keep your body pH-balanced (slightly alkaline). It's also packed with natural antioxidants [negatively-charged electrons], which are free to naturally fight free radicals. Free radical damage in the body is like rust, and cell membranes can get so degraded that they even mutate if you don't do something about free radicals. Drinking alkaline antioxidant water all day long will help you prevent and even reverse free radical damage. When you've finished reading this page, take the time to learn more about the important subject of alkaline ionized water and why it's the healthiest water to drink... Benefits of Drinking Alkaline Ionized Water


Most water is oxidizing by the time it reaches your tap (or bottle), and oxidized water contains positively-charged free radical molecules (active oxygen, or O2+). Alkaline ionized water contains a good amount of alkaline minerals, and is negatively-charged (antioxidant water). The minerals, like calcium and magnesium, which are the most abundant minerals in alkaline water, are coincidentally the healthiest to consume. By ionizing this water it gives these healthy minerals a negative charge, which helps the body recognize them as more absorbable than if the water came with its usual mix of minerals and positive charge. Our bodies are naturally electrical and that means having a negative charge. Negatively charged anitoxidant water is the healthiest water to drink.The fact of being able to sip on ionized water (water which has an abundance of antioxidants) is a great health benefit! This is far more helpful than taking an antioxidant pill, for instance, because a pill is unreliable in how or where any antioxidants will arrive. My experience with this is that I literally saw my spider veins disappear when I started drinking high-antioxidant water.


There are hundreds of brands of bottled water. The advertising on the various bottled water brands and general perception is that bottled water is the healthiest water to drink. This site will hopefully allow you to look at bottled water in a new light. Bottled water brands are part of a multi-billion dollar industry, which got that way by convincing consumers that their bottled water was cleaner and healthier than tap water. However my comparisons of bottled water vs tap water have shown that you can filter your own tap water for a fraction of the cost and much more conveniently, and you can make it absolutely cleaner, safer and healthier than bottled water. A 4-year study done by the Natural Resources Defense Council found up to 40% of bottled water was just tap water put in a bottle.

PH is another issue related to the healthiness of your water. Bottled water brands are often acidic, and research tells us that alkaline water is the healthiest water to drink. There are very few brands of bottled water that have an alkaline pH, or even neutral, and the great majority of brands of bottled water that I've tested for pH are acidic [from 4-6 pH]: Aquafina, Arrowhead, Crystal Geyser, Dassani, Deer Park, Walmart Distilled Water, Gerber Pure Water, Walmart Great Value Water, Ice Mountain, Lassens, Penta, Perrier Water, Poland Spring Water, Propel Fitness Water, Nestle Pure Life, Smart Water, Vitaminwater, and Voss Water. Why are most bottled water brands so acidic? It's because of the extreme filtration techniques of the bottling companies. More about that below.

Let's compare two top brands of bottled water with tap water filtered by a simple, yet powerful, pH-pitcher, the Ultrawater Pitcher. The pitcher is able to filter any tap-water better than the best of the bottled-water brands, at a cost of 80% less. Why can the pitcher filter so well? It has to do with the utilization of space-age water filter technology. With UltraWater filtration you can remove absolutely everything harmful from your water, including pharmaceuticals, fluoride and radio-active elements, while leaving the healthy minerals in the water.

The above chart compares popular bottled water brands, Fiji and Essentia with tap water filtered by the UltraWater PH Pitcher.

The bottled water companies aren't using space-age technology, they're using reverse osmosis, distillation and other older and cheaper technologies to filter their bottled water. Cheaper technology and greater price of bottled water means the bottling companies are lining their pockets with your dough.

An additional benefit of the pH pitcher is its ability to ionize the water in addition to filtering it. Ionization increases the pH of the water in a way that also increases the antioxidants in the water.

Another type of water ionizer, with even higher amounts of antioxidants, is an electric water ionizer. Owning an electric water ionizer is a filtering investment that pays off big. With excellent filtration, and built to last a lifetime, the average water ionizer has a "cost per liter of under 15-cents. You can click on any of the water ionizers we sell and see a chart that compares the cost of using that water ionizer.


The WellBlue Ionizing Pitcher is a portable water ionizer machine. It doesn't need electricity and is easy and convenient to use. In this video I am testing it against various brands of bottled water to make a point that for a lot less money and virtually no work, you can get fresh, filtered, alkaline ionized water which is a lot safer and healthier than even the most expensive bottled waters.

The technology of ionizing water in a portable way, with no electricity, was discovered a little over 15 years ago by Dr. Hayashi. This method is based on a discovery that adding magnesium to water in the presence of magnetized ceramics will excite the water to ionize spontaneously without the use of electricity. This form of water ionization is a lighter ionization than what you would get with an electric water ionizer.

This video shows the alkalinity of Smart Water, Voss Water, along with the WellBlue pitcher. The WellBlue Alkaline Ionizing Pitcher can filter and remineralize that water, improve the pH-level to a perfect 9.5 pH and also transform it (ionize it) so it has antioxidants in abundance in the water! All of the tested waters, even the Essentia, were shown to be oxidizing [positively charged] when tested. The WellBlue portable water ionizer pitcher made the water negatively charged, which means it has an abundance of free radical scavenging - negatively charged - electrons, called antioxidants to help cells stay healthy and free from the damage of oxidation.


Why is fluoride bad? Fluoride is a poison and because of this I take fluoride filtration very seriously. Fluoride is a toxic heavy metal that many municipalities used to add to water in great abundance. In the past five years most municipalities have either ceased this practice, though, or cut back drastically, to about 1/4 of what it used to be. There is still some fluoride in tap water to worry about, but it can be removed by filtration. Many of the bottled water brands have Fluoride in them, so watch the video and/or read the charts on this page to learn more. I also show how my water ionizer is able to remove all of the Fluoride from my regular, municipal tap water. A special Arsenic, Lead, Fluoride filter is able to remove a great deal of Fluoride too, but doesn't do as well as a water ionizer.

While extreme filtration methods, such as reverse osmosis, remove fluoride, they also remove all of the other, healthy minerals and electrolytes from the water. Drinking water void of electrolytes is a very unhealthy choice, because your body needs those things, so these brands, even though they do remove fluoride, are not at all suggested.

See our Basics of Water Filtration page for more information about safely and economically removing Fluoride from tap water.


A water ionizer only seems to be an expensive purchase, until you compare it to the daily cost of purchasing bottled water. It is really quite economical. For instance look at this X-Blue ionizer's estimated cost per gallon of seventeen cents!

  • Good Filtration: Even if you pay the highest price for the best filtered bottled water, after it sits in a plastic container on the store shelf for a few weeks or months, it will need whatever has leached into it filtered out!
  • PH: Fresh alkaline filtered water [especially if ionized] can be relied upon to give you far better health results.
  • Antioxidants: I have witnessed the effects of a high-antioxidant value of ionized water when I saw the spider veins on my leg disappear right before my very eyes one day.
  • Convenience: Some people think it's just more convenient to go to the store and buy water. If you think of the time it takes to go into the store alone, it is just not convenient.


Our Earth cannot sustain too much more waste without drastic consequences. This is a serious subject that shouldn't be ignored.


There's also the issue of plastic wastes. Of the billions of bottles of water sold in the US, only about 1/5 is recycled. Then out of the ones that are recycled, not all make it into the actual recycling process. Some even end up in landfills overseas! That means that not only is the production of bottles costing us millions of barrels of oil each year, but almost all of these bottles are filling our landfills and polluting our earth. The industrial chemicals that are in the material of the bottles haven’t been measured, other than BPA which is only one of the many potentially disease-causing agents in the bottles. Water, the universal solvent, has the ability to leach all kinds of chemicals into itself. The variables of time and temperature are not reported by bottling companies. The EWG, Environmental Working Group, recently found all kinds of contaminants, such as human wastes, bacteria and pharmaceuticals in several brands of bottled water. So, short of doing our own testing of each bottle, we have no assurance of purity and healthiness of the water. It's best to learn how to filter your tap water so YOU can know it's of the highest water quality.

It is time, as a society, that we work to reduce the amounts of things stored in plastics wherever possible. We think plastics are all being recycled, yet in reality only about 10% of all plastics made actually achieve that end.

We are being duped into thinking that our recycled bottles are all being responsibly taken care of. Watch the video, below, to get the real story of bottled water.


The following chart shows information about popular brands of bottled water as compared to each other and to ionized water that I have collected either myself or from others' videos around the web. Where ORP is mentioned, that stands for "oxidation reduction potential", which is another way of saying antioxidants. The positive "+" sign means the water was oxidizing. The negative "-" sign means it is anti-oxidizing (contains antioxidants) and is in-line with what our bodies will accept readily. I do a lot of testing of ORP, because water has amazing healing qualities if the ORP is in the negative range. The antioxidants in negatively-charge, ionized, water have the ability to even enter cells and reduce free-radical damage that exists as well as prevent it. Read more about the benefits of ionized water for both your health and your wallet.

None of the bottled water tested offers acceptable drinking water in my opinion, even the ones that are alkaline. The bottles pose a potential of disease-causing chemicals from the plastic; long-term storage gives further risks; techniques used to super-oxidize the water makes it super full of free-radicals; and even pharmaceuticals have been found in several brands of bottled water. Bottled water companies have far fewer regulations and the enforcement of the regulations isn't consistent.

BrandDescription/NotesPHORPFluoride Content [mg./liter]
Absopure Natural Spring Water: Processed by 1 Micron filtration, UV light, and Ozonated. 7.5 +281 .15
Amway Perfect Water Bottled ionized water. 7.2 +250  
Aquafina Filtered Municipal Water [Made by Pepsi] Purified by reverse osmosis. 5 +430 .01
Aqua Hydrate Processed water with alkalinity and electrolytes added. 9    
Arrowhead US Spring Water. Called Mountain Spring water, but judging from the acidity, it's probably valley spring. 6.83 +360  
Chill [Super Chill] Natural Spring Water [from Jackson County, Michigan] 7.5 +271 .08
Chippewa Water Spring water from Chippewa Falls, WI 5.5    
Core Ultra purified mineral enhanced water. 7.5    
Crystal Geyser Plain Water 6.5 +324  
Culligan RO Purified & Remineralized 8 +214  
Dassani Purified Tap Water [made by Coke] 5.0 +378 .09
Deer Park Spring water, bottled by Nestle 6.3 +450  
Distilled Walmart Brand Distilled Water 5.0 +400 0
Drinking Water Walmart Brand RO Purified Water [Remineralized] 4.5 +274 .15
Essentia Purified, enhanced with electrolytes and Micro-Clustered Water [ionized] 9.5 +188 .15
Eternal Water  Naturally mountain spring water. Naturally alkaline water; electrolyte rich 7 +255 .03
Ethos Processed water from California...made by Starbucks. 8    
Evamor Artesian well water 8 +174 .21
Evian Spring water 7.5 +350  
Evolve Wisconsin spring water; nothing added. 8    
Fiji Fiji Spring Water: From an ancient artesian aquifer deep within the earth. 7 +274 .1
Function Water that is reconstituted from steam. 5 +436 0
Gatorade This is made with regular water [not purified] and at least some artificial ingredients. 3.5 +325  
Gerber Pure Water Purified using reverse osmosis and distillation, with the following added: magnesium sulfate, potassium bicarbonate, calcium chloride. 6.5 +297 0
Great Value RO Water Walmart Brand "Drinking Water" bottled in Quincy, IL, and processed by reverse osmosis. 6.5 +380  
Ice Canyon Spring water from CVS pharmacy. 7.5    
Icelandic Spring water from Iceland. 8.0    
Ice Mountain Natural Spring Water: From Frontier Springs, located in New Tripoli, PA and other cities in Pennsylvania and Maryland. 6.5 +302 .07
Hilton Head, Tap Hilton Head Municipal Water Supply 8 +350  
Ionized Water Ionized water can get up to a 10 or 11 pH and -700 ORP (lots of antioxidants). Ionization also removes about half the Flouride. 10 -700 0 - .05
Lassens   6 +406 0
Life Water Filtered water from Pepsi 6    
Northern Chill Wisconsiin spring water. 7    
Penta Purified water... 11-hour process [Purified by reverse osmosis/deionization with USP medical-grade oxygen. Source Colton Municipas Water District] 4 +392 .08
Perrier Water Sparkling Water Made by Nestle 5.5 +400  
Poland Spring Water Spring Water Bottled by Nestle 6.0 +380 .08
Propel Fitness Drink  Gatorade's version of processed and flavored water. Most varieties are acidic, but there is one that adds minerals and is 8 pH. 3.6 +280  
[Nestle] Pure Life 
Purified water & enhanced with minerals. Bottled by Nestle 6.5   0
Niagra Purified RO water.  5.0    
[Gerber] Pure Water Gerber brand purified with RO and remineralized. 6.5 +297  
Real Water Micro-Clustered Water 8.0 -60
Negative ORP!
Soda: Canned Diet Pepsi Typical Canned or Bottled Soda. Fountain sodas are often a little higher pH. 3.24 +377  
Smartwater Distilled and remineralized with calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and potasium bicarbonate. 6 +296 0
Spring Water "Great Value" Walmart Brand spring water. Source: Hummel Spring, Liberty, IL. Processed by Ozonation, carbon filtration ultraviolet treatment and microfiltration. 7 +284 .14
Super Chill Natural Spring Water [from Jackson County, Michigan] 7 +271 .08
Tap Water

Tap water usually ranges from about 7 to 9 pH

Hilton Head South Carolina  8 pH

Los Angeles City and County  7.5 pH

New York City Water  4.0 - 7.0

New York Well Water  6.5

St. Louis City and County Water Company [Tap] 9.4












Vitaminwater Purified, flavored water. 3.4 +430  
Volvic A brand of mineral water from France. 7.5    
Voss Water Artesian well water from Norway. 5.5 +256 .19
WellBlue Pitcher Lightly filtering and ionizing bottled water or tap water with portable WellBlue ionizer pitcher. Gives a Negative ORP (antioxidants). 9.5 -100  

  • All brands of bottled water are a lot more expensive than if you filtered the water properly yourself.
  • Bottled water is often acidic.
  • Bottled water brands are not regulated for water quality safety as well as municipalities are for your tap water.
  • We are filling the landfills with empty bottles. We can't even use all the recycled plastics.
  • The bottles are made with petroleum and there is chemical leaching into the water from them.
  • Even with the best alkaline water brands, by the time they get to you they won't be even close to "perfect" any more.
  • You can do a far better job of getting the best water (filtered and ionized to perfection) on your own with one of our great alkaline water machines, or our new Alkaline Plus PH Pitcher.